Informe de fisica 3 by victor apuntaban: “Estas películas oficiales de la NASA, analizadas por un . podrán ser resueltos por una sola nación o por una sola institución. pos de una solución a los enormes problemas que están afectando al mundo en la actualidad. Prácticamente todo lo que hoy utiliza electromagnetismo está. Para resolver este problema, los filtros con inserciones metálicas (septum) en . En [9] la primera de ellas fue estudiada y la segunda fue analizada pero . El primero de ellos es la propagación en una guía de onda ridge que fue resuelto en [8]. No 3 LABORATORIO DE ELECTROMAGNETISMO DEPARTAMENTO DE.

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George Goussetis y a D. Mode Matching Chapter 3: Simulation in Matlab Chapter 5: Analysis of Filters with one resonator Chapter 6: Analysis of Filters with two resonators Chapter 7: Analysis of Filters with three resonators Chapter 8: Future works Chapter Este efecto limita el ancho de banda disponible o requiere componentes extra para eliminar dichos espurios.

Por analjzados contrario, no resuenan a la vez a frecuencias altas, siempre y cuando el gap entre los ridges sea diferente. Uno de los objetivos de este proyecto es mejorar la selectividad de la respuesta del filtro. Primero es necesario analizar las discontinuidades formadas por las diferentes secciones que forman el filtro. Principalmente, las discontinuidades que aparecen en la Figura a son: Si la frecuencia de corte del modo, f c, es menor que la frecuencia central de trabajo del filtro, f o, el modo se propaga.

En el caso del segundo modo de las secciones, las frecuencias de corte son mayores que las posibles frecuencias centrales de la banda X. Debido a esto, el segundo modo y otros modos de orden analisados no se propagan.

Y el segundo de ellos es efectuado en este proyecto.

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Cascada de distintas secciones Cross section of Ridge Waveguide a and Reduced Waveguide b b En la Figura se muestra el aspecto de dicha interfaz. En general, la selectividad y la mejora de la banda de rechazo son maximizadas cuando la altura de los resonadores es estrecha.

Dichos factores son el factor de calidad Q y el coeficiente de acoplo Kestudiados en un filtro plano-e con uno y dos resonadores respectivamente. En la Figura se presentan Q y K en 3D observando sus variaciones. Por lo tanto, como en este caso la dependencia de K con respecto a la longitud de los acopladores internos es despreciable, tal y como muestra la Trabajo desarrollado Figura 2.

Factor de calidad a y coeficiente de acoplo b b Filtros plano-e con uno ados b y tres c analizados y validados Trabajo desarrollado Los filtros validados tienen dos ventajas importantes con respecto a los prototipos. Por tanto, los resonadores se acoplan tanto en serie con en paralelo. Mode matching analysis of waveguide discontinuities and filters with asymmetrical ridge waveguide resonators AUTOR: Comparison between Symmetric and Asymmetric position of the resonator Quality Factor Validation of a filter: Their main purpose is to pass selected signals and attenuate unwanted signals.

Microwave filters are generally made of transmission lines or waveguides. Common transmission lines used to build microwave filters are: Depending on the electric, mechanical and environmental specifications, some transmission lines offer better performance over the others. The research has particularly increased over the last decade with the explosive growth of wireless and satellite telecommunication systems requiring higher performance and more reliable filter designs E-PLANE FLTERS nductive elements such as posts, transverse strips and transverse diaphragms are extensively employed in industry to produce waveguide bandpass filters for a wide variety of applications.

However they are difficult to make at low cost and to put into mass production. To solve this problem, E-plane metal insert filters have been proposed by []. The standard configuration for E-plane filters is to use a split block waveguide housing and place inductive obstacles, typically all metal septa, in the E-plane of a rectangular waveguide, at spacing close to a half wavelength apart.

Figure present this standard configuration. E-Plane filter geometry ana,izados and layout of the metal insert b b 4. Furthermore, the all-metal E-plane insertions consist in printed circuits that are very easy to fabricate using the photolithographic process. However despite such favourite characteristics, the attainable rejection bandwidth and level might be too low for some applications such as multiplexers.

## IPRI – Instituto Paranormal de Razonamiento Intelectual

Harmonic resonance of the resonators of which the filter consist result in a electromagnetisom passband of the E-plane filters at a frequency roughly 1. This effect limits the available bandwidth or requires extra components to suppress signals at the spurious passband of filters.

Since the guided wavelength as well as the characteristic impedance in Ridged waveguide propagation varies with the ridges height, therefore, with no further manufacturing complexity, allows altered propagation characteristics along the same waveguide housing.

Based on this remark, [] suggested that the use of sections of ridged waveguide as resonators in an all-metal E-plane filter may optimise its stopband performance without increasing its manufacturing complexity.

The argument in [] was that all the waveguide sections will be resonant at a single fundamental frequency, but not simultaneously resonant at higher frequencies, provided the ridges gap differs, due to different guide wavelengths in the different filter sections. Resueltis the spurious harmonic resonance elechromagnetismo appear shifted to higher frequencies and the filter s rejection at the stopband will generally be improved.

### Electromagnetismo: problemas analizados y resueltos – Miguel Furman Rosenzvit – Google Books

Furthermore, one of the objectives of this project is to improve the selectivity of the response of the filter. Therefore, asymmetric Ridge waveguides are incorporated in the allmetal E-plane split-block-housing technology, as it is shown in Figure adue to such configuration can give rise to the appearance of a transmission zero at finite frequencies close to the passband of the filter and increase with that the selectivity.

That is one of the advantages found with respect to the standard configuration presented in Figure When the wave can follow two different ways, at the end of the ways the waves can be added in phase or in phase opposition, hence a transmission zero appears when the waves are subtracted because of the phase opposition.

As an example Figure b presents the responses of two filters like the ones in Figure awith resonators in opposite 5.

All metal insert of a E-plane filter with two and three asymmetric Ridge waveguides a and the response of these filters b Moreover, as with all waveguide structures, analizadls always exists an issue of bulkiness. This is important e.

Various suggestions to miniaturise waveguide components have been reported[], [], []. One possible solution to achieve miniaturisation is filling the waveguide with dielectric.

## Fisica Cch

This reduces the wavelength by a factor inversely proportional to the dielectric permittivity and miniaturisation is achieved by the fact that a constant physical length appears electrically longer. Such contributions are very interesting, since they allow the opportunity to make use of the advantages of the waveguide as transmission line, mainly eliminate losses due to radiation, usually mounted in portable devices. However there is one main drawback of this approach, the fact that the overall loss compared with standard waveguide, is significantly higher.

This is due to the dielectric losses. Hence, even though considerable field for the application of waveguide technology in MC prpblemas MMC structures is opened. As it will be verified, the total 6. As it is presented, essentially a filter is constituted by couplers and resonators.

The all-metal septa operate as couplers, and basically they consist in Reduced waveguides sections.

On the other hand we can find different kinds of resonators: Therefore, we can say that a E-plane filter is formed as a junction of different waveguides, as the ones presented in Figure b.

All-metal insert indicating the possible parts of a E-Plane Filter aand Cross section of different waveguides b Therefore, to calculate the final response of the filter it is necessary to solve two different problems.

For that reason methods as the Transverse Resonance and Field Matching are required to obtain the modes in these waveguides. The second problem, and one of the main objectives of this project, is the full-wave modelling of an E-plane all metal insert filter with Ridge WG.

First of all, it is necessary the modelling of the discontinuities formed between the different sections that constitute the filter. Mainly, the discontinuities that appear in Figure a are: For that reason, the discontinuity between a general Ridge WG symmetric or asymmetric resonator and Reduced WG is solved in this project for first time.

Basically, this method anakizados the fields at the junction of two waveguides with dissimilar cross-sections. Chapter two present the general formulation of the Mode Matching Method and also its application to characterise the discontinuity under study. Once the generalized probleemas matrices of all discontinuities are available, the overall generalized scattering matrix of the filter can be obtained using cascading e,ectromagnetismo. Moreover, they are excited with the first TE mode of a rectangular waveguide, the TE 10 mode.

The field distribution of this mode is presented in Figure TE 10 in electromaagnetismo rectangular waveguide Attending to the cutoff frequencies of the modes in each section of the filter it is possible to know which modes are propagated.

These last modes receive the name of evanescent modes and are characterized by an exponential attenuation and lack of a elwctromagnetismo shift. Apart from the case of the Reduced WG, the cutoff frequencies for the first modes in each section are lower than the possible central frequencies at the X band. Therefore, the first mode satisfy the propagation condition and will propagate. For that reason the second mode and higher modes will not propagate.

Cutoff frequencies for the first and the second modes of different waveguides Dimensions of the WG in mm: When the TE 10 mode travels through the waveguide and arrives to the Reduced WG, is transformed into evanescent modes.

These modes are excited with an amplitude that is reduced exponentially along the Reduced waveguide section until arrive to the next waveguide section. When the evanescent modes see the discontinuity with the Ridge waveguide, they are transformed into the first TE mode of this waveguide. Propagation of modes in a E-plane filter excited with the TE electrojagnetismo of a waveguide The main goals are to increase the selectivity and reduce the dimensions of the filter conserving the advantages that this filters provide, as low cost and resuelros producible filters.

Hence a major initial objective of this analiizados is to formulate in matrix eigenvalue equations the two problems that were commented in section 1. The first problem, problemxs in a Ridge WG, was solve in [].

The second one is going to be solved in this project and it consist in the application of the Mode Matching MM method for E-plane configurations, in particular to characterize the discontinuity between Ridge WG and Reduced WG and in a higher stage to define the overall scattering matrix that generates the response of the filter. The stopband performance improvement, obtaining also a transmission zero at finite frequencies, and the increase of the selectivity of filters are then investigated for various geometries, incorporating Ridge WG.

The latter usually involves a thorough study resueltoe the improvement versus all the parameters that can possibly affect it and then try to relate the latter regressively with the affecting parameters. Having developed the ptoblemas simulation tool, investigation for the first aim of the work, namely the exploration of opportunities of response improvement of E-plane filters using ridge waveguide, can directly start. Chapter two presents the MM method for the field analysis at the junction of two waveguides with dissimilar cross-sections.

The waveguide discontinuity that is studied in this chapter is the Ridge Electromagbetismo Waveguide. This chapter also explains the decomposition anaalizados a microwave bandpass filter in terms of its GSMs. The combination of the two methods, MM-GSM, gives the complete field analysis of a rectangular-ridged waveguide bandpass filter.